A major goal of the NSTC is establishing clear national objectives for Federal science and know-how investments in a broad array of areas spanning just about all of the mission areas of the Govt Branch. Human-caused warming of Earth’s surface and environment has penetrated the oceans to depths of a whole lot of meters; and absorption by the ocean of part of the carbon dioxide (CO2) added to the ambiance by human actions has lowered the average pH of seawater by about 0.1 ( 30 ). Lead and mercury mobilized by people transfer by marine food webs, concentrating at the higher levels, as do synthetic organic compounds corresponding to DDT and PCBs.

I then handle the status of 5 specific challenges in which science and technology (S&T) have significantly important roles to play: meeting the basic needs of the poor; managing the competition for the land, water, and terrestrial biota of the planet; maintaining the integrity of the oceans; mastering the energy-economic system-setting dilemma; and moving towards a nuclear weapon-free world.

The dimension of the shortfall is usually recommended by the figures for official development assistance (ODA) from the Group for Financial Cooperation and Growth (OECD): A recent upturn in …